Learning Motivation: psychological and social roles

Review Article

Azamat Nurmatov

   School of Business Languages, MBA in Finance,

   Management Development Institute of Singapore in Tashkent


Education has always played an enormously important role in the development of person and community. Nowadays in particular, knowledge is the key to excellence in competitive and dramatically changing environment and the power of knowledge cannot be ignored. This explains why governments have been encouraging locals to gain more knowledge in order to be compatible and leading in international scale. This is exactly what has been mentioned in President Shavkat Mirziyoyev’s ambitious reform of higher education that was signed on April, 20, 2017. According to the law, during a period between 2017 and 2021, 1.7 billion UZDS are planned to be spent on the implementation of the program. The expenditure includes improvements of laboratory buildings, sport facilities, information technologies and massive reconstructions. Nevertheless, innovative universities and comfortable conditions are not always being enough to motivate scholars. In other words, there are other motivational considerations that influence students’ behavior beyond extrinsic. The main purpose of this article is to examine the impact of psychological and social aspects of an individual that influence his learning motivation. Apart from that, some recommendations on how to increase learning motivation will be presented.

The Role of Psychology

 According to Journal of Development Education, motivation is self-perpetuating (Moore, 2007). Learners with high motivation put huge effort in developing their academic success, whereas students with low motivation have minimum exertion which leads to permanent low standards. Therefore, the task how to stimulate students to have a positive attitude towards learning has long been a challenge.

 Perception of intelligence is one of the dominant factors in learning motivation (Dweck, 2008). While scholars with fixed perception of intelligence find it difficult to cope with mistakes, the ones who have growth mindset believe mistakes are a chance to develop. In accordance with first group of people, only intelligent students can have academic achievements (Barmby, P. Defty, N., 2006). In fact, students with fixed mindset generally fall well behind those who have growth mindset because latter receive corrections and critical judgment from tutors as additional drive to work hard and usually have higher grades.  Simultaneously, rather than an offense, critical evaluation is seen as an opportunity to develop. In contrast, fixed minded students accept criticism as humiliation or abuse as a result of which, learner is discouraged to explore new things and becomes less open-minded about upcoming challenges in academia (Dweck, C.S., 1999).

 Apparently, the main objective is to transfer fixed minded learners into growth mindset. First of all, classes should be designed to promote discussions where different opinions are welcomed including verbal and nonverbal communication between tutor and scholar. Furthermore, priority should be given to developing current knowledge rather than possessing high grades and trying to show how integument one is. In addition, hard work is another key factor in growth mindset. However, it should be motivated again by becoming better in one or another sphere. Finally, teachers should repeatedly encourage learners to be willing to consider feedback meanwhile students are strongly recommended to gain the advantage of errors instead of hiding them and blaming others.  

The Role of Society

 Apart from psychological factors of learning motivation, the role of society is equally significant. Those social aspects include classroom rules, culture, students’ objectives as well as relationships between learners. The motivation to performing well in class largely depends on student’s feeling of how much he is related to his class (Ryan, A.M. Patrick, H., 2001). Therefore, it is vital that both teachers and students help each other and become supportive during lessons. This improves the sense of belonging to a community which in turn positively results to student’s academic performance. To paraphrase, it is recommended that students and tutors have more interaction which is based on mutual respect and care. This way, students are expected to have less emotional disorders that usually serve as an obstacle to hard work.   

Final Thoughts

 In contrast to adults, teenagers and early adolescents struggle with finding enough motives to study and develop their skills and from personal observation, only 10 percent of students in classroom are self-motivators. Consequently, the enthusiasm of the other 90 percent of learners is very low. Unfortunately, undermotivated students waste most of time doing non-academic tasks and prepare mainly for exams and pursue obtaining diploma only.

 It is the principal aim of this article to deliver the message that firstly, scholars with fixed mindsets should establish growth mindsets and accept the view that intelligence is not an innate ability but a tool that can be corrected, developed and mastered (Mueller,C.M. Dweck, S.C., 1998). Secondly, the role of groupmates and teacher should not be underestimated. It appears that the more communication among students there are, the less social problems they have. The needs and demands of learners should be addressed and appreciated. The main point to consider is that there will be both psychological and sociological harmony in classroom. In result, there will be more opportunities to increase intellectual abilities and keep warm atmosphere in the classroom. Meanwhile, it is worth adding that it would be fruitful to pursue further research concerning factors that affect learning motivation in order to maximize academic progress and make learning more enjoyable and effective.


List of references


Barmby, P. Defty, N., 2006. Secondary school pupils’ perceptions of physics. pp. 199-215.

Dweck, C., 1999. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C., 2008. Brainology: Transforming students' motivation to learn. Independent School, Winter, pp. 110-119.

Moore, R., 2007. Academic motivation and performance of developmental education biology students. Journal of Developmental Education, pp. 24-34.

Mueller,C.M. Dweck, S.C., 1998. Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, pp. 33-52.

Ryan, A.M. Patrick, H., 2001. The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents' motivation and engagement during middle school.. American Educational Research Journal, pp. 437-460.